Tuesday, April 19, 2011

Parrish (1961): Tobacco Will Stunt Your Growth

There are LOTS of *SPOILERS* below, so please don't say you haven't been warned...

I suppose that Parrish (1961), a beautiful looking, empty-headed 35mm Technicolor product from Warner Brothers, may be someone's favorite, so don't take offense--but holy cats, what a doozie. This sultry smörgåsbord of a potboiler is bursting with a glut of lust, tobacco lore, class warfare, marriages of convenience, agronomics, illegitimate babies, arson, empire building, and even a trip to the North Pole (honest). I think I am going to have to get a copy of this and place it in a hallowed spot on the shelf next to my earlier "bad movies I love," such as Susan Slade and Rome Adventure. Not only does this movie seem to be the nadir of the talented filmmaker Delmer Daves' career, who was an individual whose better films could be graced by thoughtful, poetic and sensitive moments--but it also contains the worst performance I've ever seen the usually fine Karl Malden give in anything, (Television's The Streets of San Francisco was Shakespeare compared to this).

In a movie that had the tagline "More than a boy...not yet a man!" Troy Donahue, in his first starring role,  gave a stolid, almost embarrassed performance as a young man who moves to tobacco country in Connecticut with his mama (Claudette Colbert, in her last feature film).

Their arrival in the fertile Connecticut River Valley in the Windsor area immediately stirs passions on the reportedly "idealistic" Sala Post's farm (Sala is played by my favorite eunuch, Dean Jagger). Several of the coarse womenfolk start yelling catcalls at the dumbfounded Troy, who hesitatingly asks the field hands for their advice on growing tobaccy ("It's just like a baby" one crone tells him as she caresses a tendril of the weed lovingly). Among the workers is a nubile, perfectly coiffed Connie Stevens, trying to undress Troy with her eyes.  Despite Sala's opposition to having a fox near his hen house, Troy is hired to work in the fields while his Mom tries to be a duenna of sorts to the "stormy, passionate" daughter of Dean Jagger, (Diane McBain) whose return from college is imminent. To muddy the water a bit further, Karl Malden appears as a tobacco mogul named Judd Raike, who is hellbent on taking over the land of the smaller tobacco growers because, apparently, their tobacco is better than his--making a "perfect wrapper" for a cigar. Clearly, this movie came out before the Surgeon General's Report on Tobacco in 1964. It was also clear that this film stretched the decrepit Production Code tighter than Connie Stevens' thin cotton pedal pushers.
Above: Dean Jagger casts a cold eye on the fruit of Claudette Colbert's loins when Troy Donahue shows up with her in Parrish (1961).

As filmmakers sought to push the envelope on what was acceptable fare for general cinematic consumption, movie audiences were shifting dramatically from a substantially adult market to one that had the maturity of the average prurient thirteen year old. This movie reflects that trend. As Pre-Code historians have pointed out, it was as though American movies, after achieving a remarkable frankness and sometimes even a notable insight into human behavior, fell into a swoon in July, 1934 when the Code became strictly enforced.

However, the world had changed. Seasoned storytelling by a Lubitsch, von Sternberg, Vidor and Hawks belonged to another time. As the Code began to falter--and the movie industry started to awaken from a thirty year coma, movies were less prepared to be truly sophisticated again, and they needed to cater to a much more sensationalistic audience. Films had lost their sophistication, but they had not lost their ability to shock. Today Parrish seems silly, and its content ludicrously melodramatic and smutty in a way that television series long ago surpassed in appealing to lower common denominators. At the time of its initial release, it was inadvertently part of an inevitable revolution. Today, in its own odd way, it is also an amusingly seductive movie.
Above: Sharon Hugueny and Diane McBain make a Troy sandwich.
The movie was based on a popular 1958 novel Parrish, written by the intriguingly named author, Mildred Savage.  The novelist and Wellesley graduate, who paced along the sidelines while the film cameras were rolling in Connecticut, expressed concern to a reporter about the movie's ability to capture "'the deeper values' of the book. My central concern--and fortunately Mr. Daves agrees about this--is that younger people today are neither 'beat' nor 'lost.'" Her purpose in writing the book, Miss Savage told the New York Times in 1960, was her desire "'to show an affirmative hero who may be confused because of his youth and sex troubles but is still masculine, unaffected and optimistic--able to get ahead on his own two feet. The idea of setting the story in this tobacco industry came last. It seemed sensible to put a vigorous, healthy young man to work in the soil.'" The director, producer and screenwriter of Parrish, Delmer Daves, explained his spin on the story as a chance to expand from the theme of his last film, A Summer Place. In that film, he said that he "tried to dramatize the terrible end of communication between parents and children. Here, in this day of mass identification, I show the need for a young man to establish his individual liberty against the world's increasing push toward conformity." Well, those worthy intentions may have been in the minds of the creators of Parrish, but the demands of commercial movie-making may have transformed them from film strip material about mental, physical and spiritual hygiene into a glossy cinematic joyride fueled by a rush of hormones--albeit still restrained by the MPAA. Which, btw, brings me back to the actions and consequences of such revels.
Miss Stevens in one of her breezy moments in Parrish (1961).

Connie is immediately able to seduce Troy, (My! This must have gotten monotonous by the time of Susan Slade, made in the same year as this epic). This time she comes on to him faster than a dose of tobacco poisoning causes him to break out in a rash--enabling the pouty Connie and morosely aroused Troy to share my favorite seduction scene in the movie--who knew that calamine lotion was an aphrodisiac? As for Troy Donahue, his diffident character, which may also have been a lack of acting technique, seems far more at ease in his man-to-man exchanges with Dean Jagger than he does in his many clinches with the randy ladies in this picture. Having left his journalism studies at Columbia University for the hurly-burly of the silver screen as a Warner Brothers contractee, the twenty-five year old must have found himself over his head after several significant supporting roles, most notably in A Summer Place (1959), which launched him as a teen icon, without much time to learn his new trade.

In several sequences, especially the interminable love scenes, Donahue has a deer-caught-in-the-headlights look that made me pity him, and wonder why these lusty women couldn't find anyone better than this lost boy to toy with in their frenzied moments. Unfortunately, the only other live male around on the sunny side of forty seems to be the odious character played by Hampton Fancher, who began his career, appropriately enough, as a "Zombie" in The Brain Eaters (1958). Fancher, (who showed up again as a nerd studying Etruscan culture in Rome Adventure) had a rather pinched face and fragile physique, which led to his casting as Edgar Raike, the nastier of the two sons of Karl Malden's overbearing tobacco big shot. I won't even count as girl-bait the pale David Knapp, who played the booze-hound son, Wiley Raike, since the actor, making his film debut, barely choked out two lines in this film.

Above: Connie Stevens throws herself at Troy Donahue--literally.

Connie Stevens' character is soon preggers, (as usual in this kind of movie) but it turns out that Parrish is not the baby daddy. Diane McBain also keeps trying to seduce Parrish, but the two hapless actors look too much alike--both blondes with blue eyes whose peepers are photographed through a vaseline smeared lens and with a special key light by the gifted Harry Stradling, Sr., whose use of color and framing gives this film a magnificent (if empty) veneer. After awhile it is hard to tell them apart in close-up.  As my movie-hating sis pointed out, Diane's character of Alison Post is also hampered by the fact that she seems to be majoring in Snobbery at her exclusive college (which is apparently somewhere near Albany) with a minor in Fish-wifery, which comes in handy when she marries poor Wiley, the feebler of Karl Malden's two sons.
Above: Sharon Hugueny with a picture of Mr. Donahue, boy dreamboat.

Actually, an actress I'd never seen before, (consciously) Sharon Hugueny, who was the only girl with a glimmer of intelligence in the herd, playing the brunette Paige Raike (where did they get these names?) was the most interesting of the bunch--even if she did belong to something called "The Girl's League," that seemed to be reminiscent of the Hitler Youth. This gang showed up to help on Dean Jagger's tobacco farm singing a ditty that sounded suspiciously like the infamous "Horst Wessel Song". At least she seemed to have half a brain, if little knowledge of fascist history.

Of course, Karl Malden's drive for domination over the tobacco world is briefly diverted by the genteel, beautifully dressed Claudette Colbert, (whose Harry Shoup dresses are one reason for seeing this movie, with the exception of one hideous evening gown that makes Claudette look like the crumpled end of a glittering toothpaste tube). In his memoirs, Malden commented on how nervous and delighted he was to be appearing on screen with the legendary Claudette Colbert, whose films he had treasured as a youth in Gary, Indiana. He also felt that he and  Colbert were surrounded with earnest but completely overwhelmed young actors. "What was fascinating to me about this film," Malden wrote, "was having the chance to watch two different schools of acting in action. Claudette was the consummate pro. One or two rehearsals and she was ready for a take. What was at the time the younger generation--Troy Donahue, Connie Stevens--had a completely different style. They were often unprepared and relied on blocking time to learn their lines. They had been thrust into leads too fast...These kids weren't up to the task."  At the time of the film's production, Malden was more sanguine, telling a reporter with a chuckle, "Working with these kids is a little tough sometimes, Still they're eager and they're learning. And we can always do retakes if something goes wrong."
Above: Diane McBain getting into character in Parrish (1961).

Diane McBain, one younger member of the cast, explained in a much later interview that "They called Daves the director with the velvet whip. He was very tender and soft but he let you know how he felt in no uncertain terms." In fairness to Delmer Daves, as his son Michael Daves pointed out in this podcast with John Mulholland and Stephen Bogart, his father had a massive heart attack some time before this film was made; an event that undoubtedly strained the filmmaker's equanimity and energy level. As a writer and director who had made classic films such as Pride of the Marines, The Red House, Dark Passage, Broken Arrow, 3:10 to Yuma, and The Hanging Tree, perhaps being saddled with a trite, commercial story from a best seller and a cast of neophytes may have strained his patience.
Above: Delmer Daves, filmmaker.

Despite any problems on the set, Diane McBain recalled that she liked "Parrish. It was fun to do. I played my first movie bad girl in this film and it typed me almost forever." Noting that her fellow Warner Brothers player Connie Stevens was "pretty feisty and let the studio know when she was unhappy about things," McBain described herself as one of the folks who liked to go along. I didn't like to fight. I just wanted to work." In reality, the novice actress "didn't sleep a wink the night before the first day of shooting. When it came time for me to say my lines, I just froze. It was pure terror for me...[and] "I think [Colbert] looked upon me with some sort of disdain [after that]. Troy, Connie, Sharon Hugueny and I all struggled because we were trying to keep up with such movie legends."

Perhaps Malden gnawed the glossy scenery once too often in this film as a result of his over-anxious desire to help the film--and maybe he was a bit nervous sharing the screen with an acclaimed star in intimate setups. As the character actor told one interviewer in Connecticut, "I won't get into the meat of this one until we return to Hollywood for interiors, because that's when we do my love scenes with Claudette. It's my first chance at a romantic part, and she's delightful--a real pro."

Above: Karl Malden and Claudette Colbert go a-courtin' in Parrish (1961).
With Daves' earlier hit A Summer Place (1959) undoubtedly in mind, the older couple's love affair is given an unusual amount of attention, though the implied passion is not there, a certain tenderness is allowed the middle-aged couple. The adaptation by Delmer Daves explores their attraction through one scene when Colbert inadvertently spills some trade secrets of her employer, earning Malden's frank admiration. Other than that it is largely confined to a series of montages, with one extended scene in which Malden points out to Colbert that he would prefer a mistress to a wife, a situation that compels her to leave--pronto.

In fairly short order Colbert becomes Malden's gracious consort, overlooking his terrible temper, obsessive behavior, contemptuous treatment of his spineless male offspring and her son, his vulgar nouveau riche antics,  and the fact that Karl is a decade younger. One of the choicer moments in the film comes when Karl and Claudette decide to get hitched and a newspaper with a giant headline (the kind reserved for "War Declared!") swirls into view: "JUDD RAIKE TO MARRY SALA POST SERVANT!"  as kettle drums reverberate and--apparently--this golden corner of the nutmeg state shudders. This moment and several other dramatic peaks are accompanied by Max Steiner's most unlikely bombastic score ever, with his music overwhelming and shoring up every event in the movie. Max, Max, where is the gentleness and subtlety of Johnny Belinda, Since You Went Away and Now, Voyager? This tuneful mishmash is like a rejected hybrid of Gone With the Wind and A Summer Place.

If only Colbert had more to do! When she finally tells Karl where he can get off, this flare of pique seems but an echo of this good actress' abilities, on display in films for three decades prior to this flick. I am ashamed to report that I kept thinking "Hmmm, Claudette, you've had Boyer, McCrea, Milland, MacMurray and more on screen. You've worked with Lubitsch, Sturges, Ford and Leisen at the zenith of their talent. What are you doing here?"
Above: Karl Malden & Claudette Colbert make an unlikely couple in Parrish (1961). It might have been a more interesting movie if it had been about their mismatched union, now that I think of it.
According to a very diplomatic Claudette in 1960, "I didn't really intend to make another picture. At this point I'd rather work on the stage. I'm a mature woman, but I can't suddenly put on gray hair and play character roles, and most mother parts are too Pollyanna-ish for me. I took this [role in Parrish] because I felt it had a point of view. The mother wants to break the silver cord and lead a normal sex life of her own. Not completely content with the film's resolution of her character's problems with her husband's autocratic manner, Colbert indicated that she hoped to work things out with the director. Regardless, she said graciously "After all, it isn't really my picture. But he's a kind, cooperative man, and I must say the scenes I've already done went smoothly. Locations, at least, are a lot more efficient than they used to be."

The location work in East Windsor and Poquonock (a part of Windsor, CT) wasn't always quite as easy as Miss Colbert implied. Rural roads, sparse facilities technical difficulties and a yapping lapdog ruining takes on the sidelines whenever his mistress (Connie Stevens) entered the scene all made things somewhat vexing for the crew, largely consisting of seasoned Hollywood hands, who engaged in pastimes between shots pitching pennies with Connie and the locals, many of whom were hired as extras to provide color and some New England verisimilitude.

Interestingly, in the recent biography of Star: How Warren Beatty Seduced America by Peter Byskind, the author stated that at one time Warren Beatty was reportedly slated to appear in the Donahue role, Elia Kazan was offered the project as director, and no less than Vivien Leigh and Clark Gable were allegedly offered the roles filled by Malden and Colbert. How this project might have evolved differently with that mega-dose of star power is impossible to imagine.

Two things in this movie made it great watching for my guilty soul:

1.) The detailed depiction of the farm life, with the planting, nurturing, problems and harvesting of the sole crop that occupies these farmers--tobacco.

I love anything to do with farming and that part of the movie was great. Of course, it never occurs to anyone to grow anything other than tobacco, and no one shows up from the local farm bureau to suggest that diversification might be a more reliable way to make a tenuous living at this occupation (and it would be easier on the land). To this day, tobacco farming in the state is still practiced, (though it makes up a smaller percentage of CT agribusiness). The particular type of leaves that the climate yields, shade tobacco, are prized by cigar manufacturers worldwide, but in relatively small Connecticut, property has become more valuable to real estate speculators than as farmland in recent decades. Filming in Connecticut enabled the movie-makers to capture some glorious Summer and Fall locales, resplendently green, gold and lush.

The very changeability of Eastern Seaboard weather that produced such beautiful landscapes, however, reportedly caused some problems for the film production. An unscripted thunderstorm during a dramatic confrontation between Malden and Donahue sent 140 members of the cast and crew scrambling for shelter--and hastening to shield highly valuable camera equipment from the sometimes frequent downpours. Many found themselves huddling together under massive maple trees, waiting for Mother Nature to finish venting her displeasure. One disgruntled crew member, speaking to a reporter, claimed that "If we tried to give an accurate picture of life on a Connecticut tobacco farm, we'd wind up with 80 per cent of the scenes in the rain."

2.) Thank God for Dub.

The delightfully cheerful Dub Taylor appears as Connie Stevens' white trash Daddy whose female household consists of wives, mothers, daughters, deaf grandmothers and other scene-stealers--though no one can compete with Dub's ebullient love of acting. My favorite Dub moment comes when he sticks his gnarly head into his grandchild's bassinet and claims that the illegitimate tyke looks just like a Raike (one of Malden's scions was the Pop)--though the little butterball baby looked so much like Dub Taylor, I expected the kid to start cackling and speaking with a pronounced southern accent. Need I mention that Mr. Taylor, unhampered by any seams in the ragged material here, may be the one actor in this movie who is completely at home in his own skin?

Can't get enough of Dub? Neither can I! Classic Images has a delightful account of Dub Taylor's life and times here.

Btw, none of the older male characters have recognizable names, but have the kind of cognomens made up by the same people who name soap opera characters: Parrish McClean (Donahue) meets Sala Post (Jagger) and Judd Raike (Malden). Dub Taylor is named--and I'm not kidding--Teet Howie!

The greasy-voiced narration of this trailer might convey some of the irresistible ickiness embedded in this piece of celluloid:

Parrish (1961) has recently been broadcast on Turner Classics Movies and may be scheduled again. It is also available on DVD as part of the  Warner Bros. Romance Classics Collection issued in 2009, which includes the films Palm Springs Weekend, Rome Adventure, Susan Slade and this film.


If you are as foolish as the author about "Bad Movies You Love" please feel free to view more entries in this series of blog postings here.


Archer, Eugene, Focus on a Connecticut 'Parrish,' The New York Times, June 5, 1960.

Byskind, Peter, Star: How Warren Beatty Seduced America, Simon and Schuster, 2010.

Dick, Bernard F., Claudette Colbert: She Walked in Beauty, Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2008.

Lisanti, Tom, Fantasy Femmes of Sixties Cinema, McFarland, 2001.

Malden, Karl, When Do I Start?: A Memoir, Simon & Schuster, 1997.


Jacqueline T Lynch said...

Brilliant. Especially the dress-as-toothpaste tube remark. I confess, these late '50s, early '60s angst-filled younger generation movies have never had much attraction for me, and I tend to watch them for the clothes and the cars more than anything. Like you, I'm more interested in the farming aspect of this movie (though - another confession - I always seem to miss seeing the whole movie. Even when it played recently, I discovered it too late.) But I have two reasons for forcing myself to watch the whole thing one of these days: one, it's filmed in my neck of the woods and I'd like to see how much has changed or hasn't, and two, I had a friend, sadly deceased now, who mentioned that as a young man working a summer job on a tobacco farm (once a common thing hereabouts), he found himself ordered to stop work and gather with a bunch of the other workers to cheer Troy Donahue at the end of this movie. At lease some of it was filmed where they were working. I've never seen my friend's "movie debut", and I'm not sure I'd recognize him in a crowd shot anyway, but watching it something I have to do for my pal.

Thanks for a great review.

Laura said...

What a fun review! I smiled all the way through it. Haven't seen the movie yet, but I have the DVD set which includes it, and I'm sure I'll be checking it out at some point in order to check another Claudette film off my list. I'll be remembering your comments on Dub Taylor, in particular.

I'm familiar with Sharon Hugueny from a couple episodes of MAVERICK -- have always wondered why, in that era, her last name wasn't changed as it's relatively difficult to figure out how to pronounce. :)

Best wishes,

Moira Finnie said...

Hi Jacqueline and Laura!

I had to find some fun way to translate this movie-viewing experience into something besides 2 hours+ that I'll never get back, but it is a kick if a few simpatico people also get some enjoyment from my wise guy remarks about such entertainment.

Jacqueline, I understand how you might find these adolescent films of the early "post-modern" period wanting in depth and credibility. They are not good as a steady diet, but as a treat occasionally, they can be fun.

You might enjoy seeing this film since there are many characters who I suspect were locals who were given a line or two. They stand out from the 8 x 10 glossies with their natural manners and strong accents. Since there are several large crowd scenes in the movie, I really hope that you can find your late friend's face in the crowd.

Regarding the farming aspects of this story, what is shown is fascinating, though there are only sketchy bits of info given verbally but lots of beautiful visuals. For people who once made their living this way, it must be a time trip to see this movie, though apparently parts of CT and MA are still used for tobacco. Btw, I found that the Wintonbury Land Trust now owns much of the property, the Thrall Property and farm structures that were featured in the movie. The land and buildings such as Sala Post's farmhouse are very beautiful and very N.E., and part of the reason to enjoy this movie--even if you don't get a kick out of talking back to the characters when they spout some outlandish dialogue. ;-)

Laura, I thought Sharon Hugueny was really beguiling, even if at only 17, she didn't seem to have a polished technique in her scenes in Parrish. I don't remember seeing her on Maverick, though, as Karl Malden pointed out, her brief experiences as an actor may have been a case of 'too much, too soon' for a youngster in Hollywood. I did discover that she was producer Robert Evans' first wife for six months when he was 30 and she was 17, and was later married twice more, becoming a mother of one boy. I hope she had some happiness in her brief life. She was only 52 when she died of cancer. On the day that she married Evans, Rosanno Brazzi, a guest at the wedding, reportedly told Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. that the "raven-haired bride was the brush of Michelangelo."

Is it possible that you are trying to see all of Claudette Colbert's movies, just as you have been pursuing Gail Russell's films!!?? Since posting this blog, I found some quotes from Claudette Colbert regarding the making of Parrish and her rather mixed feelings about the project, which I've added to the section of the blog describing her and Malden's interaction. It sounds as though Colbert just called it a day after this one (until that juicy part in The Two Mrs. Grenvilles came along). I hope she kept the wardrobe from Parrish. It was lovely, except for that uncharacteristic gown!

I don't think that you'll be disappointed by Dub Taylor. He's a hoot.

Thank you both for taking the time to post a comment. Please know that I am wishing both of you a Joyous and Peaceful Easter this Sunday.

P.S. Susan Slade is being broadcast on TCM at 12AM EDT on Sat morning, April 23rd. What a way to start the weekend.

Laura said...

Hello again, Moira!

What interesting background for Sharon Hugueny - thanks much for sharing it.

Yes, I'm trying to work my way through the films of both Claudette and Gail Russell, as well as Priscilla Lane. :) A diverse group of ladies.

I recently started watching the Warner Archive release of THE TWO MRS. GRENVILLES and need to make the time to get back to it! It's rather amazing to watch it and realize how long it had been since Colbert had acted on film -- she was a complete pro, as always.

Best wishes for a very happy Easter!

Allen Forsyth said...

I grew up working under the tobacco cloth of Windsor. The film depicted what the industry was about, but of course there was none of the competition to "take over" the valley. They all really helped each other.

Your review is a good one though and covers so much about the film. We were there during the filming (I was a small tad) as we lived around the corner from where a good section was filmed, not really Poquonock, although some was shot there. It was mainly the Day Hill/Marshall Phelps area of Windsor. The opening fly-over is from the farm that my father managed, AST Farm 25.

My mother has a book with all of the autographs - and Delmer Daves had the most impressive autograph and she seemed to like him best out there. She remembers T. Donohue as forgetting his lines and always retaking.

Working in tobacco, btw, was mainly HOT (the Stevens character gets it) work and yes it rained, but that must have been the year. It was great fun and you could earn $$$$ doing it at 14 years old.

Moira Finnie said...

Thanks for sharing your own experiences on this film, Allen. I was especially interested in your first-hand knowledge of the locations used and the working milieu for tobacco hands. I have the impression that except for those areas where cigar tobacco is cultivated still, the land is no longer used very much for agriculture in CT. Is that correct?

I relished this movie, even though I thought it was way over the top too. I am so glad to read that Delmer Daves made a positive impression during this location shoot. He never seems to have gotten his due for his work, though whenever I see his name on a film, from movies as diverse as Pride of the Marines (1945), Broken Arrow (1950), 3:10 to Yuma (1957), The Hanging Tree (1959) and A Summer Place (1959)--I know that there will be something of value for me to enjoy in the acting, the story telling and the composition of a frame of a film. He'll never be an auteur, I suppose, but he was a good writer and even when the scripts he was given were not the best, he gave something better than expected to the work.

Many thanks for stopping by.


Allen Forsyth said...


The land was sold off in the roaring 80's but some did hold on to theirs and it must be prospering today as there are still farms growing shade (tent cloth like Parrish) which is for the famous Connecticut cigar wrapper and broadleaf (which is outside without cover) although some farms have diversified.

If you search the Luddy/Taylor Tobacco Museum in Windsor you can get some first-hand info back and maybe plan a trip to see the real thing grown someday. There is no finer aroma than a curing shed (the leaves are being dried and then dampened to pack and ship). They are at: http://www.tobaccohistsoc.org/

I do have some memories of the film - especially the hi-delly ho-delly scene at the end (using Chaffee school girls - not real tobacco workers) and the fight scene.

Here's some info on the use of Terra Mar and Mystic Seaport for filming also:


Yes, they tried to get the authenticity of tobacco into that film but overplay things like Blue Mold and no one would ever work with headlights all around the fields so there was some added drama. Sheds burned? Not for that reason but they did burn and are spectacular sights when they did.

Good to talk some Parrish and tobacco with you!

Moira Finnie said...

Thanks, Allen. The links are great and it's good to know some land is still cultivated and hasn't been sub-divided in your beautiful state.


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